Step 1 – Disaggregate
Disaggregate is defined as “to separate something into component
parts or to break apart.” Teachers and administrators break down standardized
test data into individual student and classroom reports. The previous year’s
test scores are arranged from lowest to highest so that teachers can group students
and identify the students’ weak and strong objective areas. Teachers also
receive student performance data for their previous year’s class so they
can analyze the impact of their instruction and identify any areas on which
to focus professional development. If needed, training in data interpretation
and analysis is provided for teachers and administrators.
Step 2 – Instructional
The Instructional Focus Calendar is created prior to the beginning of the school
year using the results from Step 1. The Instructional Focus calendar states
the Sunshine State Standards and benchmarks to be taught, the window of time
when they will be taught, and the dates for which students will be assessed.
The deficient skills are prioritized and all skills may be repeated throughout
the year. It is best to allow at least two weeks for instructional focus for
each skill. The calendar can be changed based on students’ progress toward
The Instructional Focus calendar
is also used to identify content areas and concepts in which teacher training
will be needed. Based on identified needs, professional development opportunities
are scheduled to ensure that teachers have the necessary skills to effectively
teach concepts related to the standards/ benchmarks to be taught.
Instructional Focus Calendar
Middle School Instructional Focus Calendar
High School Instructional Focus Calendar
Step 3 – Instructional
Instructional Focus activities are the backbone of the Eight Step Process. The
objective is for all teachers in all disciplines to be teaching the same skills
throughout the day, according to the Instructional Focus Calendar (Step 2).
For a certain amount of time each day (e.g., 10 minutes each day at elementary
level, 10 minutes each class period at secondary level), teachers will focus
on the agreed-upon standard/benchmark. The Instructional Focus is a school-wide
priority. This way a student sees the value of how a particular skill is applied
across the entire curriculum. For example, finding the main idea in a reading
selection in language arts and finding the main idea in a science or social
studies selection are equally important. Elective classes can also incorporate
the Instructional Focus Activity. For example, a physical education class could
discuss the main idea of a particular game plan. By observing the same focus
activity throughout the day, students receive consistent exposure and practice
with the same skill.
Step 4 – Assessment
Once the Instructional Focus Activities have been delivered across the curriculum,
it is necessary to assess students to see if they have mastered the skill. The
assessments are modeled after the FCAT. The assessment results are analyzed
carefully to note patterns identifying deficiencies or misconceptions that need
to be further addressed. In this manner, the results of the assessments are
used to make instructional decisions.
Step 5 – Tutorial
Using the data from the assessments, students who do not master the skill are
targeted to participate in tutorials. The tutorial activities are closely aligned
to the specified benchmarks and provide additional instructional time for students
who are having difficulty mastering the standard/benchmark. After concepts have
been re-taught, students are re-assessed. Ongoing tutorial sessions ensure that
no student is pushed ahead too soon.
Tutorials can be developed and delivered
in many different ways. Following, are three different models for tutorials
used by the Goals 2000 8-Step Process Grant Schools:
Oriole Elementary School
Various teachers and administrators worked with small groups of students to
help hone their skills. Students were separated into five instructional groups:
||0 – 29 percentile
||30 – 39 percentile
||40 – 51 percentile
||52 – 75 percentile
||76 – 99 percentile
- Foundation students received
a second “dose” of Direct Instruction reading
- Bubble students and
Foundation students attended CCC labs for drill and practice of the
instructional focus skills
- Foundation, Bubble,
and Reteach students participated in after-school academic math,
reading, and writing camps
- FCAT Chats and review of test
scores with students were ongoing
- Enrichment was provided in a
variety of ways:
- the CCC Lab for Mastery
students and System students
- an Advanced Placement Program
for academically talented students
- a math pullout program for
Bubble and System groups.
Instructional videotapes were created for each instructional focus skill and
were used for the tutorial, enrichment, and maintenance steps. All students
were shown the series of videotapes and were provided with three levels of skill
assessment. The unique nature of this system allowed the students to pick their
tutorial assessments included simple passages, asked questions that contained
clues, and used a guided discovery model for asking questions that lead students
to the correct answers.
assessments asked questions about the skill in a more traditional format that
tested basic knowledge through multiple choice, short answer, and other lower
level question formats.
assessments, designed for students who feel they already mastered the skill,
asked more complex questions that required higher level thinking skills, hence
the enrichment step.
The videos were made available to
teachers to use over time as a way to perform the maintenance step.
Boyd Anderson High School
All 9th, 10th, and repeat FCAT 11th grade students were assessed (Foundation
through International Baccalaureate). Those students who did not pass the assessment
were scheduled into tutorials three times a week during their elective classes.
Tutors, provided through a Broward Community College Grant, were trained in
FCAT skills and the Eight-Step Process. No more than 15 students were scheduled
into each tutorial session. Tutorials included review of completed instructional
focus skills and test taking skills. Students were assessed bi-monthly. Those
who mastered the skills and showed great improvement were released from the
Tutorials. Those students who did not master the skills remained in the program
and others were added during future school-wide assessments. Students earned
grades for participation, test scores, and attendance. These grades were given
to the elective teachers so that students would not be penalized for missing
class. Students also attended Saturday FCAT Camps for additional practice.
STEP 6 – Enrichment
Students who have mastered the skill at the basic level and do not
need to participate in Step 5 Tutorials are provided with some form of enrichment
activity. Enrichment activities provide students with opportunities to deepen
their learning and understanding of the concept. Enrichment activities can be
extra-curricular activities or special assignments.
STEP 7 – Maintenance
Once students have mastered a skill, it is extremely important to help them
maintain their understanding. The maintenance activities are a quick way to
help students retain what they learned during the Instructional Focus lessons
and allow teachers to identify students who are slipping. The maintenance step
is mainly the responsibility of the classroom teacher. Instructional Focus Skills
should be infused into daily lessons and repeated often. Eight
Questions to Ask Every Class assists teachers in addressing skills on a
STEP 8 – Monitoring
The monitoring component is probably the most important step of the 8-Step Process.
Like the Sterling Process, the Eight Step Process cannot be successful if the
leadership of the organization does not fully support it. Principals should
visit classrooms on a regular if not daily basis to observe the implementation
of the process, conduct meetings with teachers and students, and meet regularly
with departments and teams to monitor the instructional progress of students.
Department chairs, coaches, School Advisory Council, and others involved with
the leadership team may also participate in the monitoring process.
What is Included on the CD?
| Background and Project History | Why
the 8-Step Process?
The 8-Step Process Defined | Instructional
Focus Skillls | Videos for Tutorial and Enrichment
Eight Questions to Ask Every Class | Documents
for Download | Multimedia Presentation